Lucretian inductions, Galilean evidence or Darwinian deductions were attacks against mental laziness, which is more powerful than any dogma can be. Ideological reasons do not explain human resistance to change. Basically, they tend to sloth.
Until relatively recently, women have had problems gaining access to jobs traditionally taken by men such as medicine, professorships and research. Some women, however, like the three given as examples in this article, managed to become pioneers in the most difficult disciplines and areas requiring utmost dedication.
Humboldt and Darwin belonged to different generations and their approaches to the study of nature differed. However, they had something in common: their lives were shaken up and changed course after their respective journeys, which marked the starting point of their fruitful scientific careers.