complex systems

Complex systems

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics has recognised the work in the study of complex systems in nature, but Ferran Martin looks at other complex systems in his particular look at this week's news.


Vacuum-packed, please

In the 17th century, it was difficult to achieve and maintain a partial vacuum. In the 21st century, the challenge is to achieve an ultra-vacuum in the laboratory such as we could never have dreamed of.


Why can we not see colours at night?

Human eyes cannot perceive colours at night because cones, responsible for colour perception, are only activated under intense light conditions.


Gravitational waves

Ferrran Martin refers to Gravitational Wave Astronomy following the first observation of a binary system of a black hole and a neutron star.


Struck the air

For there to be sound, there must be a vibrating source, a transmitting medium that propagates the vibration at a certain speed, and a receiver that is set into vibration when the wave arrives.



There is no way to force a pendulum to oscillate at a different rhythm, determined exclusively by its length


«The Matrix» and thermodynamics

If we were to use electrodes to extract energy from ourselves, we would collapse because we would have nothing left to keep our hearts beating.

sound space

Why is there no sound in space?

In space, there is not a medium to transmit sound, so the battles going on in space would not be heard.

how is sound produced

How is sound produced?

Any vibrating object produces sound. Chantal Ferrer, director of the Department of Applied Physics of the University of Valencia, explains.

cygnus x 1 forat negre

The Nobel Prize in Physics, orbiting black holes

The Swedish Academy has awarded Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel, and Andrea Ghez the Nobel Prize in Physics. What is behind this shared award? When did the debate on black holes start? An analysis by Manel Perucho.