Miguel Á. Toro

Professor emeritus at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). He has published research papers on population genetics, quantitative genetics, and genetic improvement applied to domestic species as well as on topics related to altruism, cooperation, and cultural evolution. He won the National Genetics Award from the Spanish Genetics Society in 2010 and the Leroy Award from the European Federation for Animal Science (EAAP) in 2011

The most widely accepted hypothesis holds that social norms were shaped by processes of cultural selection between human groups with different rules on how to organise social life.


Darwin reflected on the potential of natural selection by comparing it with the results humans have achieved with artificial selection. This paper discusses how, although the similarity between the two is evident, there are also important differences.